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Table 1 Distribution of character states and results of the Fisher’s exact rxc-tests

From: Morphology of lentic and lotic tadpoles from Madagascar

  Lentic Lotic P
Oral disc position
 Ventral 16% (7) 54% (43) <  0.001*
 Anteroventral 67% (29) 36% (29)
 Terminal 16% (7) 10% (8)
Oral disc type
 Funnel-shaped 0% (0) 9% (7) 0.055
 Normal or folded 98% (42) 85% (68)
 Specialised 0% (0) 4% (3)
 No data 2% (1) 3% (2)  
Oral disc width
 Broad 0% (0) 29% (23) <  0.001*
 Moderate 67% (29) 56% (45)
 Narrow 33% (14) 14% (11)
 No data 0% (0) 1% (1)  
Labial tooth rows
 <  5 9% (4) 1% (1) 0.060
 5 (includes 2/3) 2% (1) 5% (4)
 >  5 60% (26) 73% (58)
 0 keratodonts 21% (9) 11% (9)
 no data 7% (3) 10% (8)  
Ventral jaw sheath
 V, U, arch 84% (36) 84% (67) <  0.05*
 Arch, V, inverted 0% (0) 6% (5)
 Horizontal 7% (3) 1% (1)
 Specialised 2% (1) 6% (5)
 Missing 5% (2) 0% (0)
 No data 2% (1) 3% (2)  
Dorsal jaw sheath
 V, U, inverted 16% (7) 13% (10) <  0.05*
 Horizontal 2% (1) 0% (0)
 Arch 47% (20) 29% (23)
 Specialised 28% (12) 56% (45)
 Missing 5% (2) 0% (0)
 No data 2% (1) 3% (2)  
Marginal papillae
 1 complete or incomplete row 58% (25) 43% (34) <  0.05*
 ≥ 2 complete or incomplete rows 35% (15) 39% (31)
 Specialised 0% (0) 13% (10)
 No papillae 7% (3) 5% (4)
 No data 0% (0) 1% (1)  
Eye position
 More lateral than dorsal 37% (16) 31% (25) 0.832
 More dorsal than lateral 12% (5) 14% (11)
 Dorsolateral 51% (22) 55% (44)
Distance between eyes
 Broad 21% (9) 35% (28) 0.352
 Intermediate 51% (22) 54% (43)
 Narrow 12% (5) 8% (6)
 No data 16% (7) 4% (3)  
Eye size
 Big 7% (3) 25% (20) <  0.01*
 Intermediate 74% (32) 71% (57)
 Small 19% (8) 4% (3)
Body shape
 Depressed 49% (21) 55% (44) 0.187
 Moderately depressed 33% (14) 38% (30)
 Normal, globular 19% (8) 8% (6)
Relative length of tail to body
 <  0, 99 5% (2) 5% (4) 0.988
 1-1, 49 14% (6) 15% (12)
 1, 5-1, 99 53% (23) 50% (40)
 ≥ 2 28% (12) 30% (24)
Tail muscle
 Not robust 47% (20) 11% (9) <  0.001*
 Slightly robust 37% (16) 25% (20)
 Robust 16% (7) 64% (51)
Fins
 Convex shaped, not low 33% (14) 15% (12) <  0.001*
 Moderately low 56% (24) 41% (33)
 Low 12% (5) 44% (35)
Tail tip
 Pointed 28% (12) 16% (13) 0.299
 Intermediate 12% (5) 16% (13)
 Rounded 60% (26) 68% (54)
  1. Significant values are indicated by *; percentage data are followed by total numbers in parentheses, based on 123 species