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Table 4 Behavioral contexts list, description of behaviors and call types produced under these contexts

From: A small vocal repertoire during the breeding season expresses complex behavioral motivations and individual signature in the common coot

No. Behavioral contexts Description
1 courtship The male chases the female on the water surface before copulation.
2 copulation The male stands on the female’s back to copulate while pecking its head and producing loud and rapid calls on the water surface or in the nest.
3 forage The common coot makes continuous calls when foraging for food in open water.
4 chase and fight The common coot fights and chases away other conspecifics, especially during the nest-building period, often involving pecking with the bill, kicking with the feet, and the broadcasting of hurried and loud calls.
5 back to nest 2 different types of call were recorded when common coots swam into the dense reeds and back to the nest.
6 in the nest The common coots can make 3 different weak calls while they are preening feathers or building nests in the reeds.
7 searching nest materials The common coots make the most commonly heard call type gently when they are searching and picking up dried or died grass stems to build nests on the water surface.
8 leaving nest 2 different calls when common coots leave nests and swim out of the reeds.
9 communication with nestlings A specific call type which was most rarely recorded produced by the adult common coots to seek or interact with their nestlings.