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Table 1 Results of one-way ANOVA showing significant differences among all 4 types of calls. n is the number of individuals. Paired comparisons between each of the 2 call types were subjected to least-significant difference tests

From: A small vocal repertoire during the breeding season expresses complex behavioral motivations and individual signature in the common coot

Call type Peak frequency
(PF, Hz)
Fundamental frequency
(F0, Hz)
Maximum frequency of F0 (F0max, Hz) Minimum frequency of F0 (F0min, Hz) Duration of syllable
(T, s)
Interval of syllables
(TI, s)
a 1539 ± 555
(n = 23)
924 ± 96
(n = 23)
1291 ± 122
(n = 23)
597 ± 88
(n = 23)
0.080 ± 0.043
(n = 23)
0.921 ± 0.373
(n = 8)
b 3889 ± 2186
(n = 2)
663 ± 105
(n = 2)
0.044 ± 0.007
(n = 2)
1.010 ± 0.417
(n = 2)
c 1090 ± 471
(n = 4)
810 ± 151
(n = 4)
1096 ± 83
(n = 3)
485 ± 120
(n = 3)
0.013 ± 0.010
(n = 4)
1.293 ± 0.150
(n = 3)
d 4639 ± 948
(n = 4)
4411 ± 132
(n = 4)
5179 ± 297
(n = 4)
3610 ± 94
(n = 4)
0.036 ± 0.010
(n = 4)
1.127 ± 0.209
(n = 4)
ANOVA
F 284.413 10,332.138 7923.200 9639.718 72.311 14.294
P 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000**
Paired comparisons
a-c 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000**
a-d 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.039*
c-d 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.035* 0.156
  1. * P < 0.05 ** P < 0.01