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Table 1 Anatomical structures of the black jacobin syringes described in this study

From: The hummingbird syrinx morphome: a detailed three-dimensional description of the black jacobin’s vocal organ

English term Abbreviation Latin term Source Brief anatomical description Figure(s)
lateral labium LL labium laterale [36] Paired soft tissue. Projects from between the caudal tympanum and half-ring B1 into the syrinx air passage. Figure 4a
medial labium ML labium mediale [36] Paired soft tissue. Projects from the medial part of the syrinx into the air passage.
Forms a tissue continuum with the medial tympaniform membrane.
Figure 4a
medial tympaniform membrane MTM membrana tympaniformis medialis [36] Paired connective tissue element. Suspended between the ventro-dorsal extremities of the bronchial half-rings B1 and B3.
Forms a tissue continuum with the medial labium.
Figure 4a
tracheolateral muscle TL musculus tracheolateralis [36] Paired muscle. Forms an extended band along the trachea. Attaches caudally to the syrinx and cranially to the larynx. Figure 3e-g
cranial syringeal muscle CrS musculus syringealis cranialis present study Paired muscle. Attaches to tympanum and the cranial part of the half-ring B2. Figure 3
lateral syringeal muscle CeS musculus syringealis centralis present study Paired muscle. Attaches to tympanum and the central part of the half-ring B2. Figure 3
caudal syringeal muscle CaS musculus syringealis caudalis present study Paired muscle. Attaches to tympanum and the lateral part of the half-ring B1. Figure 3