Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of measurements of relevant structures from Liponeura suction organs

From: Morphology of powerful suction organs from blepharicerid larvae living in raging torrents

Structural characteristics Liponeura cordata Liponeura cinerascens
Mean ± SD Number of individuals Mean ± SD Number of individuals
Spine-like microtrichia
 Length (μm) 5.4 ± 0.0 2 7.6 ± 1.9 4
 Diametera (μm) 1.2 ± 0.0 2 1.5 ± 0.1 3
 Pitch (° rel. to horizontal) 40.8 ± 0.5 2 38.4 ± 5.8 3
 Density (μm−2) 0.44 ± 0.04 2 0.44 ± 0.06 6
Sealing rim width (μm)
 From SEM images 1.9 ± 0.1 3
 From in vivo IRM images 1.7 ± 0.2 2
Rim microtrichia width (μm) 0.64 ± 0.12 4
Spine-like microtrichia zone coverage (% of total suction disc area) 30% 1 27% 3
Sarcomere lengths (μm)
 Cuticular fold muscle 8.2 ± 0.0 2 6.6 ± 0.2 2
 Cuff muscle 7.6 ± 0.5 2 4.8 1
 Piston muscle 5.6 1 6.7 ± 0.4 2
 V-notch muscle 7.1 1
Cross-sectional muscle area (μm2)
 Cuticular fold muscleb 12,000 1
 Cuff muscleb 4800 1
 Piston muscleb 13,000 1
 V-notch musclec 950 1
  1. Standard deviation measures deviation between individuals where available. --: structures not fully accessible or visible for measurements. aDiameters of spine-like microtrichia were measured just above the bulbous base. bCross-sectional areas were estimated by taking orthogonal slice through the muscle before attachment using L. cordata micro-CT data. cCross-sectional area of the V-notch muscle was estimated using L. cinerascens synchrotron-based CT data