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Table 1 Summary of measurements of relevant structures from Liponeura suction organs

From: Morphology of powerful suction organs from blepharicerid larvae living in raging torrents

Structural characteristicsLiponeura cordataLiponeura cinerascens
Mean ± SDNumber of individualsMean ± SDNumber of individuals
Spine-like microtrichia
 Length (μm)5.4 ± 0.027.6 ± 1.94
 Diametera (μm)1.2 ± 0.021.5 ± 0.13
 Pitch (° rel. to horizontal)40.8 ± 0.5238.4 ± 5.83
 Density (μm−2)0.44 ± 0.0420.44 ± 0.066
Sealing rim width (μm)
 From SEM images1.9 ± 0.13
 From in vivo IRM images1.7 ± 0.22
Rim microtrichia width (μm)0.64 ± 0.124
Spine-like microtrichia zone coverage (% of total suction disc area)30%127%3
Sarcomere lengths (μm)
 Cuticular fold muscle8.2 ± 0.026.6 ± 0.22
 Cuff muscle7.6 ± 0.524.81
 Piston muscle5.616.7 ± 0.42
 V-notch muscle7.11
Cross-sectional muscle area (μm2)
 Cuticular fold muscleb12,0001
 Cuff muscleb48001
 Piston muscleb13,0001
 V-notch musclec9501
  1. Standard deviation measures deviation between individuals where available. --: structures not fully accessible or visible for measurements. aDiameters of spine-like microtrichia were measured just above the bulbous base. bCross-sectional areas were estimated by taking orthogonal slice through the muscle before attachment using L. cordata micro-CT data. cCross-sectional area of the V-notch muscle was estimated using L. cinerascens synchrotron-based CT data