Skip to main content


Fig. 1 | BMC Zoology

Fig. 1

From: Turbulence exposure recapitulates desperate behavior in late-stage sand dollar larvae

Fig. 1

Early competent sand dollar larvae do not display ‘desperate’ behaviors at settlement, with or without turbulence exposure. We either exposed D. excentricus larvae 10 dpf (reared at ~ 20 °C) to 3 min of 6 W/kg turbulent shear (wavy bars) or did not (open bars). Then, we transferred exposed and control larvae into one of two settlement conditions: 24 h in MFSW alone (left side of graph) or a 1 h exposure to 40 mM excess KCl in MFSW –to assess competence– followed by a 24 h recovery in MFSW (right side of graph). We detected an effect both of turbulence exposure (F1,12 = 5.36, p < 0.02) and settlement medium (F1,12 = 228.93, p < 0.001) on proportion of larvae settled, but no clear interaction (F1,12 = 3.41, p = 0.09). Error bars are ± the standard error of the mean (s.e.m.)

Back to article page