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Table 2 Experimental design used to test the individual and combined exposure of Acanthostomumcercariae and pesticides on D. melanostictustadpoles

From: Effects of agrochemicals on disease severity of Acanthostomum burminis infections (Digenea: Trematoda) in the Asian common toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus

Parasite Exposure medium
Dechlorinated tap water (Control) Chlorpyrifos Dimethoate Glyphosate Propanil
No cercariae
Cercariae (12 × 4 = 48) + + + + +
  1. Note: Concentration of 0.5 ppm was used for all four chemicals. 20 tadpoles were tested in each treatment