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Table 1 Summary of the age and origin of female elephants utilized in this study, and mean (± SEM) estrous cycle characteristics and serum progestagen concentrations

From: Endocrine correlates of puberty in female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at the Pinnawala elephant orphanage, Sri Lanka

Female Date of Birth Age at Onset and End of Study (years) Captive or Wild Born Number of Cycles Luteal Phase Length (days) Follicular Phase Length (days) Total Cycle Length (days) Baseline Progestagens (ng/ml) Luteal Peak Progestagens (ng/ml)
Tikiri ~Sep 2002 3.0 – 4.5 Wild 0     0.63  
Mali* ~ Nov 2001 3.2 – 5.0 Wild 4 55.1 ± 6.8a 24.2 ± 6.5 90.0 ± 1.7a 0.73 2.25 ± 0.12c
Maya* ~Jan 2000 4.0 – 5.8 Wild 4 79.0 ± 4.2b,c 25.3 ± 9.5 104.3 ± 13.5b 0.55 3.26 ± 0.50d
Uthpala Aug 1999 5.5 – 7.5 Captive 7 78.3 ± 7.1b,c 33.4 ± 2.8 114.6 ± 6.0c 0.34 0.94 ± 0.10a
Ashokamala* Aug 1999 6.5 – 8.3 Captive 4 78.0 ± 3.4b,c 28.3 ± 0.8 109.3 ± 2.8c 0.20 0.89 ± 0.15a
Surangi ~Dec 1997 7.0 – 9.2 Wild 7 76.9 ± 2.8b,c 29.0 ± 3.2 104.8 ± 4.5b,c 0.76 2.06 ± 0.20c
Supamali** ~Jun 1997 7.3 – 9.1 Wild 2 69.5 ± 3.3a,b 28.5 ± 3.3 98.0 ± 1.0a,b 0.50 2.23 ± 0.04c
Meena** ~Nov 1997 8.3 – 10.3 Wild 3 77.7 ± 2.8b,c 35.0 ± 8.3 112.7 ± 5.6c 0.52 2.01 ± 0.27c
Sandali ~Jul 1993 11.6 – 13.6 Wild 7 65.7 ± 5.9a,b 27.0 ± 5.2 88.5 ± 5.7a 0.43 1.28 ± 0.16b
Kanthi ~Aug 1992 12.8 – 14.8 Wild 6 82.3 ± 6.3c 31.0 ± 2.0 113.3 ± 6.2c 1.70 4.71 ± 0.17e
Manika* ~1990 14.3 – 16.2 Wild 3 83.7 ± 10.9c 33.7 ± 2.1 117.3 ± 12.6c 1.13 3.43 ± 0.25e
Overall Mean 74.6 ± 2.8 30.6 ± 1.1 105.3 ± 3.2 0.68 ± 0.13 2.31 ± 0.38
  1. *Exhibited first estrous cycle during the study period
  2. **Females conceived during study period
  3. a,b,c,d,eValues within column differ (P < 0.05)