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Table 1 Literature review of host record(s), collection information, and mechanism of host following during colony emigrations of Eciton-associated Haeteriinae

From: Nymphister kronaueri von Beeren & Tishechkin sp. nov., an army ant-associated beetle species (Coleoptera: Histeridae: Haeteriinae) with an exceptional mechanism of phoresy

Species name Host record(s) Type of collection Mechanism of host following during emigrations Reference(s)
Aemulister hirsuta E. hamatum, E. mexicanum, E. vagans BC, EC mechanism unknown [34, 78], CvB
Alienister patrum E. quadriglume?, termites? RC n.a. [79]
Alienodites bifurcatus E. hamatum BC n.a. [25, 80]
Amiculus subglabricollis E. dulcium not known n.a. [81]
Anasynodites striatus E. burchellii EC mechanism unknown [82]
Anasynodites striatus costaricae E. burchellii BC, EC mechanism unknown [83]
Aphanister fungifer E. hamatum not known n.a. [37]
Aphanister n. sp. 1 E. hamatum not known n.a. [34]
Aphanister n. sp. 2 E. hamatum not known n.a. [34]
Cheilister lucidulus E. burchellii BC, EC, RD mechanism unknown [25, 35], AKT
Chrysetaerius iheringi E. quadriglume EC rides on medium worker [82], AKT
Clientister fernandi E. burchellii, E. hamatum EC mechanism unknown [38, 84]
Clientister henrici E. burchellii BC, EC mechanism unknown [25, 83] AKT
Clientister yvesi E. hamatum BC n.a. [84]
Clientister n. sp. 1 E. burchellii EC attached underneath head of major worker AKT
Clientister n. sp. 2 E. burchellii EC attached underneath head of major worker AKT
Colonides collegii E. burchellii EC mechanism unknown [82]
Colonides collegii guyanensis E. burchellii EC mechanism unknown [85]
Colonides cf. collegii E. burchellii EC mechanism unknown CvB
Colonides hubrichi E. dulcium EC mechanism unknown [35, 85, 86]
Colonides cf. hubrichi E. dulcium EC runs in emigration on foot; at the very end of emigration AKT
Colonides n. sp. 1 E. rapax EC runs in emigration on foot; at the very end of emigration AKT
Colonides quadriglumis E. quadriglume EC mechanism unknown [35, 87]
Convivister nevermanni E. burchellii, L. praedator EC mechanism unknown [83]
Daitrosister confirmatus E. burchellii EC, RD carried by ant worker with mandibles?; underneath of worker head [25, 83]
Daitrosister ecitonis E. dulcium, E. mexicanum, Ne. pseudops not known n.a. [86]
Daitrosister irregularis E. dulcium not known n.a. [38]
Daitrosister longipilus E. dulcium not known n.a. [88]
Daitrosister n. sp. 1 E. dulcium crassinode, E. mexicanum not known n.a. [34]
Daitrosister n. sp. 2 E. burchellii BC n.a. [53]
Daitrosister n. sp. 3 E. burchellii BC, RD n.a. [53]
Daitrosister reticulatus E. dulcium not known n.a. [81]
Daitrosister setulosus E. quadriglume BC n.a. [87]
Daptesister pilosus E. burchellii, E. dulcium, E. hamatum EC, RD attached to larva being carried by worker [34], CvB
Ecclisister bickhardti E. burchellii not known n.a. [87]
Ecclisister bickhardti costaericae E. burchellii BC, EC, RD attached underneath head of major worker; attached to ant pupa carried by worker; riding on male ant [25, 83], AKT, CvB
Euclasea diadochus E. quadriglume, L. praedator not known n.a. [89]
Euclasea godmani E. burchellii BC n.a. [46, 53]
Euclasea inops E. burchellii, L. coecus not known n.a. [46, 83]
Euclasea splendens E. quadriglume, E. dulcium, Ne. pseudops not known n.a. [35, 46]
Euxenister asperatus E. quadriglume BC n.a. [87]
Euxenister caroli E. burchellii EC, RD runs in emigration on foot; attached to pupa or larva carried by a worker; rides on underside of minor, intermediate and submajor worker, body upside down [25, 82, 57], AKT, CvB
Euxenister wheeleri E. hamatum BC, EC primarily runs in emigration on foot; rarely attached to larva or booty carried by a worker; rides on underside of workers, upside down; once attached to host male gaster [57, 84], AKT, CvB
Latronister guyanensis E. hamatum BC n.a. [84]
Latronister n. sp. 1 E. vagans not known n.a. [34]
Latronister rugosus E. hamatum, E. vagans EC, BC attached between petiolar nodes with mandibles; body upside down [25, 62]
Mesynodites sodalis E. quadriglume not known n.a. [35]
Microsynodites ciliatus E. dulcium not known n.a. [86]
Monotonodites nitidus E. quadriglume BC   [46, 87]
Neocolonides howdeni E. burchellii, E. hamatum, Ne. pilosus RD n.a. [85], CvB
Nymphister kronaueri E. mexicanum EC attached between petiolar nodes with mandibles, dorsal part upside; primarily on intermediate workers this study
Nymphister monotonus E. hamatum BC n.a. [38, 46], AKT
Nymphister rettenmeyeri E. burchellii, E. hamatum, E. mexicanum BC, RD n.a. [39]
Nymphister simplicissimus E. burchellii, E. hamatum, E. mexicanum EC mechanism unknown [25, 37, 78], CvB
Panoplitellus comes E. burchellii, E. quadriglumme EC n.a. [82, 85]
Paratropinus scalptus E. burchellii EC, RD mechanism unknown [25, 53, 78, 83], CvB
Paratropinus variepunctatus E. burchellii EC n.a. [82]
Psalidister burchelli E. burchellii not known n.a. [35]
Psalidister burchelli costaricensis E. burchellii EC, RD mechanism unknown [25, 83]
Psalidister carinulatus E. quadriglume not known n.a. [35]
Psalidister distinctus E. burchellii BC, EC mechanism unknown [53, 83]
Psalidister foveatus E. quadriglume not known n.a. [35]
Psalidister furcatus E. burchellii BC n.a. [35]
Psalidister n. sp. 1 E. burchellii not known n.a. [34]
Psalidister n. sp. 2 E. burchellii RD n.a. [53]
Psalidister n. sp. 3 E. burchellii RD n.a. [53]
Psalidister n. sp. 4 E. burchellii RD n.a. [53]
Psalidister quadriglumis E. quadriglume not known n.a. [35]
Psalidister cf. quadriglumis E. quadriglume EC runs in emigration on foot AKT
Pulvinister nevermanni E. hamatum EC, BC primarily attached underneath head of major worker; also runs in emigration on foot [25, 37, 57], AKT
Sternocoelopsis auricomus E. quadriglume BC mechanism unknown [87]
Sternocoelopsis n. sp. 1 E. burchellii not known n.a. [34]
Sternocoelopsis nevermanni E. burchellii not known n.a. [62]
Stenocoelopsis cf. nevermanni E. burchellii EC attached underneath head of major worker AKT, CvB
Sternocoelopsis veselyi E. burchellii EC mechanism unknown [82]
Sternocoelopsis cf. veselyi E. burchellii EC mechanism unknown CvB
Symphilister collegianus E. burchellii BC, EC mechanism unknown [82]
Symphilister hamati E. burchellii, E. hamatum EC, BC rides under allitrunk of worker; carried by ant workers with mandibles? [25, 37, 83, 90], CvB
Synoditulus separatus E. burchellii, E. quadriglumme BC n.a. [35]
Synoditulus n. sp. 1 E. burchellii RD n.a. [53]
Trichoreninus exclamationis E. dulcium, L. coecum, No. esenbecki, No. hartigi not known n.a. [46]
Trichoreninus geminus E. burchellii not known n.a. [83]
Trichoreninus major E. dulcium, No. esenbecki not known n.a. [46, 82]
Troglosternus ecitonis E. burchellii, E. hamatum BC, EC, RD rides on medium worker [25, 85], AKT
  1. The table includes only species with a known association with Eciton army ants. Note that host records have not been studied systematically in any case except for N. kronaueri. This means information about host spectra is far from complete and additional host associations are possible for some species. The terms minor, intermediate, submajor, and major refer to different worker castes found in Eciton colonies [3, 21]. Question marks point out doubtful observations
  2. Abbreviations: AKT personal observation, A. K. Tishechkin, BC bivouac collection, CvB personal observation, C. von Beeren, EC collected in emigration column, E. Eciton, L. Labidus, n.a. not applicable because the species was not found in emigration columns (in contrast to mechanism unknown), Ne. Neivamyrmex, No. Nomamyrmex, RC collected in a raid column, RD collected in army ant refuse deposit